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Yes, there have been studies showing some disadvantages. Bialystok (2008) notes that It is now well documented that bilinguals generally control a smaller vocabulary in each language than monolinguals (Oller and Eilers, 2002; Perani et al., 2003; Portocarrero, Burright and Donovick, 2007). This has been found to be true in children, adolescents, and ...


27

According to this paper, in general, bilinguals have smaller vocabularies for each language. They also match pictures to words and list common words at a slower pace. Most of the disadvantages fall under the category of lexical access. In my own experience, I started taking a while to recall some advanced English words around the time I started learning ...


23

According to the Foreign Service Institute (FSI), there are categorical rankings of difficulty in learning a language relative to English. A list can be found here with approximate time to become adequate in that language. Another concept closely related to this is Linguistic Distance. Linguistic distance involves how similar one language is to another (...


23

There are a few reasons why immersion helps you learn a language without you actively trying: You encounter the language more often. When you are immersed in a language, you don't go to class and do homework for a few hours a week, but rather use the language the entire day. You depend on the language to survive—to buy groceries, to talk to employers and ...


18

What is beneficial is watching movies with subtitles in the original language of the movie. So if you're, let's say American, you will watch a French movie with the French subtitles, that is to say in your L2. Technology allows us to access DVDs with optional subtitles, including in the language of the movie. You can improve not only your listening skills ...


16

According to The Polyglot Dream, Choose two languages that are distinct from each other. Languages that are similar can overlap by way of words, grammar, emotions, memories, and other factors, thereby causing confusion. Therefore, learning Spanish AND Italian, Dutch AND German, or Portuguese AND Romanian at the same time is not a good idea. The ...


16

Yes. As seen in this article (though not primarily about linguistics), it promptly states: Some neuroscientists are not so sure. They think that giving up handwriting will affect how future generations learn to read. “Drawing each letter by hand substantially improves subsequent recognition,” Gentaz explains. Drawing each letter by hand improves our ...


14

Not restricting it to Duolingo et al. specifically the name of this research field is CALL (computer assisted language learning). There's at least two major journals devoted to this in all of its aspects: ReCALL - which is the journal of the Journal of the European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning and CALL - published by Taylor and ...


12

"The Five Principles of Effective Second Language Acquisition" by Transparent Language states that students who have a silent period in which they absorb vocabulary and observe the language are much more effective when speaking and writing. Forcing language learners to rush into sentence formation can interfere with vocabulary learning during the ...


12

There are several that I can think of: Most notably, reading out loud allows you to improve your pronunciation of the language. This can help you identify sounds or accents you're having trouble with in the language. Reading out loud allows helps you feel more fluent while speaking with a native speaker. You will feel more confident when having a real ...


11

Barely Language learning has many benefits but I could find a few: Anxiety is the biggest one I found. Language learning can be a difficult process and it doesn't come as easily to some people. When students are having trouble learning a new language, getting more lost in a language can cause a great deal of anxiety for students. [source] Wikipedia has ...


11

For young children learning similar languages simultaneously usually is not a problem, however for adults this could be a challenging. This mainly depends on the methodology being used, certain aspects of the languages (fundamental differences, grammar, conjugations, and sentence structure) and your own unique learning abilities. It's much more efficient if ...


11

Put simply, yes, there have been many studies analysing (and proving) that a non-article L1 affects students learning an L2 that does have articles. For instance, Finnish and Swedish learners of English were asked to narrate the events of a film. The Finnish speakers ended up using no articles or prepositions (as Finnish has no articles and few prepositions)...


11

By far, the most important impact gamification has on any activity, including language learning, is to increase one's attention span. By making mundane tasks into games (from cleaning a child's room, to walking up the stairs, to saving the world, to asking and answering questions online, and to to vocabulary memorization) it makes the task less mundane. ...


11

If you look up research on this topic (Ebbinghaus, curve of forgetting), you'll see that forgetting varies. We might remember everything a day later - or have forgotten everything. This is something that varies according to learning method, person, stress, sleep, etc. It's certain that you are going to forget everything unless you review it. Ideally, you ...


11

Yes, there are studies, and yes, already knowing at least two languages does make it easier to learn another. According to a study from the University of Haifa, being bilingual does make it easier to pick up yet another language: "Gaining command of a number of languages improves proficiency in native languages," Prof. Abu-Rabia explained. "This is ...


10

I found some interesting articles instead of the studies, but they should suffice. The first article by FluentU lists five major advantages in learning multiple languages at the same time: good for your brain, saves time, similarities and differences between languages are clearer, saves you from being bored, and opens tons of opportunities. Clearly, ...


10

Here is one such study, but it appears to be at least commissioned by Duolingo itself even if it was carried out independently. Here is an independent critique written by Michael Schmitz, an online German educator which compares Duolingo to his more traditional classroom courses. In general I am of the opinion that there are not enough studies to make a ...


10

Yes. Actually, it is quite impossible to not to. In this article, it states: The link between foreign language learning and culture learning has been established by the linguists and anthropologists a long time ago. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages has concluded that through the study of other languages, students gain a knowledge ...


10

Since people of a like language will naturally be more in communication with each other than, say, those who don't share a language, and thus forming a culture, the habits, concepts, and even words and their real/implied meanings are going to be deeply intertwined with that culture. This document points out: Language is more than just the code: it ...


9

A quick survey of literature (and I mean quick - maybe 15 minutes) suggests that RS is effective - but that effectiveness varies on a variety of factors, such as previous language experience, cultural appropriateness, etc. This article on RS's use with ESL students in Nigeria suggests that it was highly effective at improving student's proficiency, but ...


9

There are pros and cons to learning a language in any age group. From the Frankfurt International School: In fact, studies have shown that adolescents and adults are in many ways better at learning a new language than children, except in the area of pronunciation. From the Max Planck Institute for Psychoanalysts: In order to answer when one should ...


9

There are lots and lots of factors. I am going to list some of the major ones here: The language you start with: For example, Mandarin Chinese is ranked one of the hardest languages to learn as an English speaker. Mandarin Chinese could also be very easy for someone else with another language. Even English might be hard to some. Psychological Barriers: A ...


9

The question is inherently unanswerable because science doesn't really investigate questions like this. You can have a scientific study that asks how many languages the average person can speak. You can't really answer how much they could possibly speak. We can observe that people who put in a lot of time can learn 20 languages but we can't run studies that ...


9

Paradowski & Wysokińska (2014) summarise interviews with 6 polyglots about their motivation. The purpose of the article is to discover what motivates polyglots to learn languages in general, not specifically to learn "rare languages". However, some of the languages under discussion can be said to be rare, so here are some relevant quotes:   PK ...


9

If your flashcards are divided into just two piles—the big one and the small one—you may need to refine your reviewing system or "algorithm". One very common system is the Leitner system (named after Sebastian Leitner, who introduced it in the 1970s). This system assumes a larger number of stacks (excluding the set of cards that have not been learnt yet, i.e....


8

Speech is produced by the passage of air through the phonatory organs. You can refer to these Wikipedia articles about phonatory process (production of speech) and the phonatory organs. Here is an article by a linguist "Pronunciation is a physical exercise" giving advice to people learning a foreign language, ending with: The conclusion is that you ...


8

When you're immersed in a language's country, you'll be exposed to not only the language, but also: The culture: an integral part of understanding the language; the language grew or morphed based on the culture. The language, as it's spoken in day-to-day life. Sure, maybe you can introduce yourself, you can describe where you live, what you need, where you ...


8

The Goldlist method is based on this assumption. I haven't found any peer reviewed articles on it, though. This article (citing research by Mueller and Oppenheimer) suggests that we do learn better by physically taking notes. Take Notes by Hand for Better Long-Term Comprehension. It isn't specifically for language learning, though.


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