Hot answers tagged

17

This is what I used: o kama sona e toki pona! (on Tokipona.net, unfortunately no longer available). It's one of the most popular courses, although there are a few points that differ from Sonja's recent book (for example, the use of "e" after "kepeken"). There's also Toki Pona in 76 Lessons (in English, but also available in German), but ...


16

I will tackle this questions in two steps: first, findings by researchers and teachers, then an alternative approach. Grammar Instruction in Isolation Is Not Effective In 1974, E. Hatch ("Second language learning - universals" in: Working Papers on Bilingualism, 3) made a distinction between "data-gatherers" and "rule-formers". Data-gatherers tend to focus ...


14

I found this 112 page Toki Pona instructional booklet, covering everything from the alphabet to more advanced concepts, like words for thematic vocabulary or living things. It seems to be one of the most comprehensive guides out there, if you're really into learning Toki Pona. The official Toki Pona website also might be a useful resource, as it includes ...


13

First a bit of terminology: declension is a very general term refering to the fact that nouns, pronouns and adjectives are inflected (i.e., take different endings) in order to express number, gender, and case. declension may also be used to refer to a group of nouns/pronouns/adjectives that follow a particular pattern of inflection (take the same endings ...


13

It all depends on the person. I have a student who feels comfortable doing grammatical exercises, as those are reasonably clear-cut, compared to, say, writing or speaking. Grammar exercises are almost always either correct or incorrect, with little middle ground. On the other hand, for some people, they are simply dreary, boring and can be utterly ...


8

I'd say that you should study as much grammar as you need to learn the language. For some people, who have little foundation in grammar (in their own language), or who speak a very different language from English such as Chinese, grammar training is important to mastering a new language. For others, who have a good grammatical foundation in a European ...


7

One of the classic grammars for learners of French is Nouvelle grammaire française by André Goosse and Maurice Grevisse (De Boeck, 1995, 396 pages). Size is 23.5 by 15.7 cm, so not "pocket size". Bescherelle La grammaire pour tous (Hatier, 2012; 320 pages; 19.6 by 13.9 cm) is a bit more compact. It contains clear explanations and many commented examples. The ...


7

One should distinguish between implicit learning and explicit learning. According to Wikipedia, there is no agreed-upon definition of implicit learning, so we assume the following rough definitions of implicit and explicit training: explicit training is "training that provides learners with information about (...) grammar rules or directs them so search for ...


6

German vocabulary and grammar are tightly related, which makes it quite impossible to learn a basic German vocabulary without at the same time also learning and understanding the basic rules of German grammar. If you follow standard curriculums, as a beginning German language student you would find yourself spending much more time initially learning German ...


6

This is an open question in SLA, which even further depends on a person's fluency in a given L2, although most would agree at least some similarities are shared. At some level, certain processes are shared between L1s, and L2s, as the answer to the question linked in this question states. Broca's and Wernicke's areas, regions of the brain responsible for ...


6

It sounds to me like you're describing Lang-8.com, which describes itself as "A new language learning platform where native speakers correct what you write." Although I have not used this service, and their introductory video makes it sound like it might be for more casual writing than something scientific, so YMMV.


6

There are a few grammar exercises at http://nl.ver-taal.com/grammatica.htm. You can find a larger set of exercises on the website Ik schrijf beter. You can buy books with grammar exercises, but it is also possible to create your own exercises by turning sentences from your reading materials into cloze tests and entering these cloze tests into a spaced ...


6

Gabriel Wyner's book Fluent Forever (2014) recommends using cloze deletion tests for learning grammar. Anki has a card type for cloze deletion tests (simply called "Cloze"). When creating a cloze test in Anki, first enter the complete sentence, select the part that will be invisible, and click the "Cloze" button. Most importantly, the point of using cloze ...


6

Take the following sentence as an example that includes all your points: Јаc сум ја прочитал книгата. Jas sum ja pro=čita-l kniga-ta. I1 am2 3-sing-fem-acc-clitic3 perf=read-past4 book-the5 'I read the book." It exhibits: Clitic doubling: the presence of both the direct object книгата and the direct object pronoun ја. Verbal ...


5

There are a lot of resources on German word order out there, usually giving a set of standard rules to go by. Dartmouth College has two good pages, one that "emphasizes formal structures and prescriptive rules", and another one that is more "conceptual in nature". Even though the authors claim that the latter article takes "a more user-friendly, and ...


5

This is an area that linguists call communicative strategies (or communication strategies). There are several strategies that you can use: Circumlocution: using different words or phrases to express your meaning. For example, saying "my father's mother" instead of "my grandmother". Semantic avoidance: avoiding a problematic word by using a different one. ...


5

Declensions add information to the word. This can be gender, object-subject relation and so on. A language without this feature has to somehow supply this information in another way (think "female steward" vs. "stewardess") (also see Wikipedia) To learn them the best way will be to listen to native speakers. After a while it will simply sounds wrong if you ...


5

Language teaching has swung through some pretty large swings over the last hundred years. First off, there's approaches to language learning without any coherent methodology and there are also misapplications of methods for purposes for which they were not intended. As mentioned in another answer, there's an approach now called grammar translation. The ...


5

Below are some resources for practicing your grammar skills in Dutch: This is a set of 200 fill-in-the-blank quizzes that tests both vocabulary and grammar. This website seems like a very comprehensive guide for the whole language, covering everything from grammatical gender to more advanced nouns. This is the page on the site dedicated to grammar ...


5

It may be that rephrasing as a question works even if the learner's native language doesn't have cases. My wife speaks Bulgarian natively and studied Russian in college in the US (where her teachers didn't rephrase as a question) and in Bulgaria (where they did). Although Bulgarian doesn't have cases* (and its interrogative pronouns in particular work as in ...


5

A similar question was posed to Chinese Language Stack Exchange in 2014: Is there a comprehensive list of separable verbs/离合动词 anywhere? There are several lists out there, but they're not comprehensive--mostly the kind of things you'd find in a blog post-sized Chinese lesson on what the concept is: ChineseGrammarWiki, Separable verbs Mateja Petrovčič, Word ...


5

One resource that may be helpful for beginners is Wombat's Irish Grammar Guide; it's just 19 pages long, so you only get the basics. A more complete resource is Graiméar na Gaedhilge on Wikisource (in English, in spite of the title). This was originally published in 1906, so I assume some of it is outdated. However, it is one of the sources for Wikipedia's ...


5

There are many things you can do, but you'll need to schedule your time carefully. With regard to resources, it will be useful to get a textbook to get started, e.g. Afan Oromo: A Guide to Speaking the Language of Oromo People in Ethiopia by Abebe Bulto. A grammar book, such as Modern Afaan Oromo Grammar: An Invitation To A Cushiatic Language by Taha M. ...


5

The most famous book in this area is "the yellow one": Lehr- und Übungsbuch der deutschen Grammatik – aktuell by Hilke Dreyer and Eberhard Schmitt, published by Hueber. This book was first published in 1985 and has been updated several times. It is aimed that levels A2 to C1, which is quite a wide range. There is a volume with grammar rules and exercises (...


5

I would strongly recommend learning the correct pronunciation from the start instead of a pronunciation based on a different language, for several reasons: You will later need to invest time and effort to unlearn all the incorrect pronunciations. This time is better spent on something more productive. You might get confused when using listening materials ...


5

First off, criticizing official school teaching programmes quite often appears justified. These programmes are result of long negotiations between various official institutions, and therefore it reflect traditions, rather than real needs or modern research of teaching methods. The rest of my answer mostly apply to individual teaching, not to the unified and ...


5

The most comprehensive grammar of the English language that I am aware of is The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language by Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum (Cambridge University Press, 2002). This doorstop of a book is 1860 pages long and I strongly advise against using this book as a resource for learning the grammar of English as a foreign ...


4

Which of the three options you choose will depend on your learning goals: If your goal (or one of your goals) is to be able to reproduce grammar rules, learn grammatical terms, etc. (as may be the case if you study linguistics at university!), then putting rules, etc. on flashcards makes sense. Whether this will improve your grammatical accuracy while using ...


4

You could put questions about grammar on the front and the answer on the back. See for example studystack.com: What tense is "has/have written"? Present perfect What is the difference between "I" and "me"? "I" for subject;"me" for object How do you know whether to use "who" or "whom"? Use "who" when you would use "he"; use "whom"when you ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible