19

They cannot be compared directly, as they are used for entirely different skills. When you hide a word, and show only the definition, you are testing your ability to recall. I have a concept in mind; a smallish, round fruit, red in color, crispy when I bite into it, it grows on a tree, and Americans are said to make many pies from these fruits. Can you ...


18

It's usually best to avoid dichotomies like "Is strategy X better or strategy Y better?". In most cases, strategies are not mutually exclusive but complementary. With vocabulary learning, using just one strategy is probably the least efficient. This is because every strategy has certain strengths (certain skills it builds well) and certain weaknesses (...


13

Indeed, there are too many factors. Flash cards prompt one's memory in a random order (unlike, for example, lectures), hence, building neural connections between the meaning, phonetic value, and spelling. Flash cards naturally aid repetition, a key for study. Nobody remembers everything from the first try. Our brain takes up to 20% of the entire energy the ...


11

It seems I'm associating the Korean word more with the English words on the card than with the actual meaning. This may be a key part of your problem. Your flash cards aren't teaching you to speak Korean, they're teaching you to translate between Korean and English! To overcome this problem, don't put any English words on your flashcards. If you make ...


10

If your flashcards are divided into just two piles—the big one and the small one—you may need to refine your reviewing system or "algorithm". One very common system is the Leitner system (named after Sebastian Leitner, who introduced it in the 1970s). This system assumes a larger number of stacks (excluding the set of cards that have not been learnt yet, i.e....


8

Part of the problem is that you're dealing with words. Words outside of the context of a sentence are just words. They need to be vitalized by putting them into the context of a sentence. In order to strengthen a word's position in your active vocabulary, you have to know more than what that word means: you have to know how it's used in that language. ...


8

Well, using flashcards you will learn words and build your vocabulary. However, learning vocabulary through sentences will help you learn how to use these words. In this way, you can learn a language more efficiently. That is why learning vocabulary through sentences, giving context to the used words, is beneficial over learning to recognize words alone. ...


6

After doing some research, I haven't found any scientific literature regarding the retention rate or effectiveness of cloze flashcards. However, there is some past research regarding what each type of flashcard is best for, so I'll present that here. Bolded items are things that each type of flashcard test. As @user83725 states, cloze flashcards are much ...


6

You might try two things for cases like this: Make two cards instead of one. Using your example of "fly", you could make one card based on "fly (noun)" and another one based on "fly (verb)" or "to fly". This will erase any ambiguity. Make cards with chunks or short sentences instead of single words. Learning words in context is better than learning isolated ...


5

There are multiple ways they help as seen in this site: Engages Active Recall - As people practice with flashcards, the brain is forced to recall the back of the card correctly and quickly. This helps the brain learn the term(s) faster and stay there longer. Aids Spaced Repetition - Cramming all the info the day before the exam is less effective than ...


5

Ask yourself: does this part help me recognize the word, or help me use the word? If the part helps you to recognize the word, like the definition, the pronunciation, the synonyms, then they are fixed. Regardless to how you use it, they are fixed. Therefore you can use these data premade for these parts to help you quickly generate a deck. If the part ...


5

Your question reveals a major shortcoming in translation-based flashcard: the ambiguity of words. Some people who have written about language learning advise against translation-based flashcards. Ambiguity is only one reason; other reasons are that this type of reviewing can be boring and that translating is not what you do when you speak a foreign language....


4

If there were a deadline for the set of words you have in Anki, you basically divide the number of unseen words by the number of remaining days and use the outcome of that division as a guideline for the number of new cards. If there is no deadline, you need to figure out how many new words you can learn per day, since this is highly individual. If have ...


4

Which of the three options you choose will depend on your learning goals: If your goal (or one of your goals) is to be able to reproduce grammar rules, learn grammatical terms, etc. (as may be the case if you study linguistics at university!), then putting rules, etc. on flashcards makes sense. Whether this will improve your grammatical accuracy while using ...


4

You could put questions about grammar on the front and the answer on the back. See for example studystack.com: What tense is "has/have written"? Present perfect What is the difference between "I" and "me"? "I" for subject;"me" for object How do you know whether to use "who" or "whom"? Use "who" when you would use "he"; use "whom"when you ...


4

Most of the time of learning cards with Anki isn't in about creating new cards but about repeated cards because you forgot what the card means. Most attempts of saving time in card creation result in wasting time repeating cards because you didn't learn before memorize or because the card quality isn't optimal.


4

Pictures! Lots of people (maybe you) learn audio-visually, which basically means you learn with sounds and pictures. Tons of words can be differentiated with the appropriate picture. The word "park" can have two pictures with the respective definition: one for the park used as a place, the other when park is used as a verb. This is mentioned in ...


3

Flashcards help you learn words quickly and effectively. You will be able to understand the written word when you see it in writing. If you practice high frequency words, they should be helpful in speaking and writing, in the "what's that word" moment. If you practice low-frequency words, you will encounter the challenges faced when learning any new low-...


3

One way to look at things is the "definition" versus the "word." Another way to look at them is the "native language" (definition) versus the "foreign" word. Which one to emphasize depends on your goal. If you are looking to gain reading comprehension, I would show the (foreign) "word" and hide the "definition" so that you learn the recognize the foreign ...


2

Every space repetition learner should read: Effective learning: Twenty rules of formulating knowledge on the SuperMemo site. Very relevant topic: 2. Learn before you memorize Nobody says that you should learn words in SRS. Usually you learn them outside of SRS (from textbook, dictionary, Wikipedia). Of course inside SRS you memorize them and it is a purpose ...


2

My L2 and L3 are similar, will using L2/L3 flashcards increase or reduce the possibility of mixing them up? Regardless of your L2 and L3 (or L1 or LN), using bilingual flash-cards teaches you how to translate between your two languages. Therefore, if your goal is to learn to effectively translate between L2 and L3, you should use flash cards that compare ...


2

Gabriel Wyner (Fluent Forever) recommends avoiding translations in flashcards. Instead, he recommends creating L2-only flashcards for L2, and L3-only flashcards for L3. For concrete things, this is usually easy: find an image for the concept that goes on one side of the flashcard, and the word itself on the other side. However, you should find different ...


2

Your question can't be answered directly. I've read some scientific articles about efficiency of learning. I've always looked for experimental results. Most common experiments are performed on remembering flash-cards. How can you compare number of flash-card recalled after 1 week with recalling of facts from listening an audio book? In that way you are ...


2

You better use both, why? "Cloze flashcards" have always been good to learn definitions of certain words within context. You may know that one word can have several meanings, and the meaning very depends on the context of usage. In this case, cloze flashcards are killer idea. On the other hand, they are weak in case where the learner has only begun to ...


2

Through some basic Google-fu, I found a couple studies, but they have problems: http://jite.org/documents/Vol15/JITEv15ResearchP431-456Sage2508.pdf https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gilbert_Dizon/publication/317552630_Comparing_the_efficacy_of_digital_flashcards_versus_paper_flashcards_to_improve_receptive_and_productive_L2_vocabulary/links/...


1

The purpose of grammar flash cards is to "acquire" grammar rules rather than "learning" them. I am borrowing this distinction from Stephen Krashen (see Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition by Ricardo E. Schütz). Learning grammar means that you consciously learn the grammar rules and apply them in exercises. Language acquisition refers ...


1

Actually this depends on the system requirements. However, why don't you just adjust the system so that allows the learner to choose if they want to shuffle or repeat. You can go further by also add an option to show the answer. But in language learning coming back to the information later on regular intervals provides continuous activation to the ...


1

In terms of efficiency, it is likely better to make the flashcards in conjunction with your L1. In terms of effectiveness of retaining your non-native languages, however, then it would be better to make the flashcards in conjunction with your L2. This technique is called laddering. Here is one of the most popular (non-scientific) laddering articles, and he ...


1

You have multiple options here. You can do the grammar rule on one side and its definition on the other: Pronoun / a word that can function by itself as a noun phrase This can be good since you can use the flashcard both ways: you can read the definition and identify the term or vice versa. If you don't have a good definition though, you might be stuck ...


1

I guess there's no universal way for learning new words. Everyone is different: some people need to write down a word, other people need to hear the word etc. I have been learning foreign languages for years and here are some points one should keep in mind: Flashcards can help to get lots of words into your heard in a short period of time, but they won't ...


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