Questions tagged [reference-request]

For questions asking for a published journal to be included as reference in your answer. Please avoid answering questions tagged [reference-request] without referencing a published journal.

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9
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1answer
134 views

What are the steps to native language acquisition for children?

I've been trying to find literature that talks about steps taken to typically learn a language. I know that based on what I've read that children start from a one-word stage to multi-word stage. What ...
9
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1answer
216 views

How effective is induction as a language learning technique?

According to the Encyclopedia of Language Development, Induction is a type of reasoning that involves deriving general principles from specific examples. Induction is most often used to acquire ...
9
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1answer
109 views

Research papers on improving speaking fluency?

I'm currently looking for scholarly research papers that discuss how speaking fluency is developed, especially for people learning English. If there are any recommended readings, please share them ...
9
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1answer
231 views

Should literacy in the L1 be taught before teaching reading & writing in an L2?

When teaching English as a foreign language to people who are not literate in their native language (L1), should learners first be taught to read and write in their native language? In other words, ...
9
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2answers
129 views

Does a good pronunciation improve one's ability to learn a language?

My father is a native Spanish speaker. He struggles with English pronunciation, and even though he has studied many English courses, he seems to be stuck. Once I talked with a phonetics teacher, with ...
9
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1answer
204 views

When using spaced repetition, do I learn less when tired?

If I use Ankidroid in the evening, I am tired and don't perform very well. If I use it in the morning, my performance is better. Does better performance also imply I am learning the content more ...
9
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1answer
90 views

Is there research showing the detrimental psychological effects of learning a language through full immersion?

I know from hearsay and can sympathize from my own experience that many people experience depression overseas when learning a language fully immersed. I can imagine that this leads to low-confidence ...
9
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1answer
164 views

Does the law of diminishing returns apply to language practice?

Have there been any studies supporting the idea that the longer you practice a language each session, the less benefit you yield from it? I've always thought this was true, and thus I always tend to ...
9
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0answers
119 views

According to research, how effective is learning an L3 through an L2?

There's a language technique in the polyglot community known as "stacking", which is essentially the process of learning an L3 through an L2. According to research on this topic, what are the benefits ...
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0answers
139 views

Evidence that the European Day of Languages motivates EU citizens to learn foreign languages?

Today, 26 September, is (or was) the European Day of Languages. The Council of Europe came up with the idea of a European Day of Languages in 2001, the European Year of Languages. The initiative has ...
8
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2answers
474 views

How do cloze flashcards compare to translation flashcards?

A cloze flashcard contains a sentence missing a word. For example: Mi hijo no puede ir al colegio, ______ está enfermo. Mi hijo no puede ir al colegio, porque está enfermo. Another form of ...
8
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2answers
214 views

My L2 and L3 are similar, will using L2/L3 flashcards increase or reduce the possibility of mixing them up?

Here's a follow-up to this question. I'm afraid that learning L3 may interfere with my L2. I'm wondering about a good strategy for making the two languages separate if I use flashcards. How to avoid ...
8
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1answer
62 views

What effects does being consistent in time and place of language study have on language learning?

I, for one, do my best to study my new language whenever I can, whether it be crammed into my busy morning or late at night. However, I've heard on several online language learning groups that ...
8
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1answer
110 views

According to research, should related words be taught together?

On this site, we already have a question about learning related words together (or not) as an autonomous learner using a spaced repetition system. At the time of writing, that question does not have ...
8
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2answers
109 views

What are the main causes of foreign language anxiety in learners of Chinese?

Wikipedia defines foreign language anxiety as follows: Foreign language anxiety, or xenoglossophobia, is the feeling of unease, worry, nervousness and apprehension experienced in learning or using ...
7
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1answer
32 views

Studies on using Kinect for learning or teaching sign language?

In 2013, developers at Microsoft Research worked on sign language recognition in Kinect devices in order to translate sign language (more specifically American Sign Language) into spoken words. ...
7
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3answers
3k views

What are the benefits of intensive reading?

As a corollary to this question, what are the benefits of intensive reading for acquiring a second language? A reference paper would be nice but is not required. Intensive reading refers to reading ...
7
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1answer
222 views

Research on benefits of writing by hand when learning foreign languages

In the past, I sometimes did Chinese grammar exercises using pen and paper, and sometimes using a computer. In both cases, I wrote out the entire sentences (not just the answers) and had them reviewed ...
7
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1answer
91 views

How does the existence of a case system affect the learnability of a foreign language?

Case is a grammatical category that can be found in Slavic languages, Finnic languages, Greek, Japanese, Tamil, etc. (The Finnic language Veps apparently has 23 grammatical cases, and tops even ...
7
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1answer
129 views

Is there any such paper that shows passive listening helps language learning?

I have been searching on Google Scholar to find a paper presenting research results on whether passive listening helps learning a language, but I could not find any. Is there any such work that shows ...
7
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3answers
166 views

Is there evidence that languages with complex grammar take longer to learn as a mother tongue?

This question is about learning to speak a language as a mother tongue (i.e., from birth (L1), not as a second language (L2)). Some languages have more grammar rules than others (number of cases, ...
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0answers
59 views

Are there any studies showing that you will tend to be more fluent in the first L2 you learn compared to your L3?

As an example, take the case of someone who speaks English as an L1, and wants to become fluent in both Spanish and French. If they learn Spanish first and French second, will they tend to be more ...
6
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2answers
229 views

Is learning vocabulary by means of (bilingual) vocabulary lists inefficient, and if yes, why?

A previous question, "Is it bad to only learn vocabulary through conversation/applied use?" (The question is now only visible to users with 2000+ reps) looked like three questions combined into a ...
6
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1answer
76 views

Do gender differences affect language learning strategies?

As far as I know, there have been many discussions and a considerable amount of research about differences in learning between boys and girls, or men and women. See for example: Gender differences in ...
6
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1answer
637 views

According to research, how effective is Memrise for learning vocabulary?

The Memrise website has a page about the scientific principles on which Memrise is based. The page also lists several articles and studies that support these principles. However, it does not list any ...
6
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1answer
215 views

What are the benefits of extensive reading?

What are the benefits of extensive reading? More, specifically, in what ways is extensive reading helpful for learning a target language? Responses based on research would be appreciated.
6
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1answer
78 views

Are there any studies on the effectiveness of learning typologically similar languages?

Flimzy previously asked, Are there any studies which address the effectiveness of studying multiple related languages simultaneously? Genetic relationships between languages (as established through ...
6
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1answer
109 views

Is there any research on the effectiveness of learning verb tables?

I own books with verb tables for French, German and Spanish, i.e. for several languages with rather elaborate verb conjugations. At school, I was made to learn such conjugations for French verbs and ...
6
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1answer
339 views

Is recall study more effective than recognition study for learning vocabulary?

According to Tim Ferris, If you train for recall, you get recognition automatically; if you train for recognition, recall is terrible, or as slow as molasses. (See The Time Ferris Show, 19 June ...
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0answers
52 views

Is it more advantageous to learn the writing system or the spoken form of a language first?

There are several primary aspects of a language, including both the writing system and the spoken form of a language. What does scientific research say about the order to learn these two factors when ...
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0answers
79 views

According to research, how well do speed reading skills transfer to other languages?

According to Wikipedia, speed reading is any of several techniques used to improve one's ability to read quickly. Speed reading methods include chunking and minimizing subvocalization. There are ...
6
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1answer
73 views

Is there a scientific evidence of class / teacher importance for adult learners?

The role of a teacher in teaching languages to adults is not clear. By roles, I mean, for example: facilitator, manager, assessor, resources, participant and counselor. Suppose learners concentrate ...
6
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1answer
193 views

Evidence that learning radicals speeds up character learning in Japanese?

Characters — in Chinese or Japanese (or Korean Hanja) — can be learnt in various ways, and it is plausible that paying attention to radicals helps memorization and retention. But is there any hard ...
5
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1answer
132 views

Is there any evidence that online language courses enable you to speak the language?

Many people try to learn a foreign language through an online language course. For example, FutureLearn hosts courses such as Introduction to Norwegian, Introduction to Dutch (three weeks), ...
5
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1answer
98 views

What are some psychological benefits to learning a second language?

Just what it sounds like. It seems like we already have a question on the detrimental effects of learning two or more languages. What are some psychological advantages to learning a second language?
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0answers
70 views

Based on research, is it better to learn a new language in your mother tongue?

I live in a multilingual country and often people that visit a language course will have the class in one of the languages spoken here, let's say French. But most of these people do not speak a lot of ...
5
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0answers
35 views

Is the number of exposures required for retaining new words related to the teaching method?

Recently, Rebecca J. Stones asked, Does it take “about 50 exposures for most words to be retained in long term memory”? The question was about a claim by Terry Waltz that classroom learners need a few ...
5
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2answers
872 views

Are paper flash cards better for retention than digital flash cards (both self made)?

Language Learning Stack Exchange currently has sixteen questions about flash-cards, fifteen questions about anki and twenty questions about spaced-repetition. There is no doubt that spaced repetition ...
5
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0answers
40 views

Is there any evidence that correcting a learner's oral mistakes in class has a negative impact?

In a comment on the question Is there a scientific evidence of class / teacher importance for adult learners? Gavenkoa makes the following claim: There is evidence that certain teaching activities ...
5
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0answers
86 views

How long does the “priming” effect last for vocabulary study?

I'm looking for studies or other scientifically-solid information on the topic. But first, an explanation. I'm interested in the psychological phenomenon of priming as it relates to vocabulary study. ...
5
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0answers
65 views

Does ethnic background affect language learning strategies?

Drawing inspiration from the question Does ethnic background affect the speed of foreign language acquisition?, I would like to ask something more specific: Is there any research on how ethnic ...
5
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2answers
138 views

Is there any evidence that vocabulary level is a good measure for predicting high economy income later?

In the Wikipedia page of Johnson O' Connor, there is a sentence says (I add the boldness): A person’s vocabulary level was the best single measure for predicting occupational success in every area. ...
4
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1answer
66 views

Brain benefit with respect to age

If someone is past their language-learning prime/"critical period", does the age at which they learn a language affect how much learning that language benefits their brain, and if so, in what ways? ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

How does flow relate to language competency? Can it be taught/learned?

Psychological flow is kind of like going on autopilot, or being completely immersed in an activity, and is also related to high performance levels. I was reading about flow in music, but it reminded ...
4
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1answer
456 views

What are important external factors in formal language learning?

Language learning is influenced by both internal and external factors. Internal factors include cognitive and affective factors such as intrinsic motivation, intelligence, anxiety, previous language ...
4
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0answers
51 views

Is there an observable Dunning-Kruger-style effect whereby the most difficult languages for a student to learn are initially considered easy?

When I started learning Chinese, overconfidence led to me thinking it was "easy". However as I progress, I realize not only how little I know, but also how ignorant I was early on: I was ...
4
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0answers
36 views

Is there evidence that tongue twisters help with listening and pronunciation?

The motivation for this question is a Chinese.SE answer: Have you tried practicing with tongue twisters (绕口令)? ... They can help with both listening and pronunciation. Repetition is really the only ...
4
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0answers
217 views

What's a Japanese language-learning website with interlinear gloss translations?

I've been trying to find one of these for years. I love the wikipedia examples where they have a sentence, a word-by-word gloss, and an English translation. Like this: 太陽が|東の|空に|昇る。 taiyō ga | ...
4
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0answers
54 views

Fluent in English and Spanish; according to scientific research, what order of learning other languages is most efficient? [closed]

I am a native speaker of the English language with 6 years of Spanish schooling. After re-establishing a fluent Spanish speaking status what should be the next language to learn? Latin seemed like ...
4
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0answers
64 views

Is there evidence that supports the idea that vocabulary is more important than grammar in conversation? [duplicate]

"Focus on your vocabulary first, then fix your grammar." This is a maxim that has been drilled into my head over several years of my Spanish teachers saying this, but is there really any truth to ...