Questions tagged [reference-request]

For questions asking for a published journal to be included as reference in your answer. Please avoid answering questions tagged [reference-request] without referencing a published journal.

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11
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2answers
2k views

Which SRS algorithm yields greatest evidence-based remembering

Spaced Repetition Systems (SRS) such as Anki, SuperMemo, Mnemosyne, Memrise, etc, use their own specific algorithms for increasing your ability to remember new words and sentences. Is there evidence ...
7
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3answers
3k views

What are the benefits of intensive reading?

As a corollary to this question, what are the benefits of intensive reading for acquiring a second language? A reference paper would be nice but is not required. Intensive reading refers to reading ...
12
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2answers
229 views

Do people fluent in two languages learn a third, unrelated language more easily?

The question in the title is strongly shortened. In full length it goes like this: Do people who speak fluently two languages (which they have learned as a child) that are quite different from each ...
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2answers
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How can watching movies help improve fluency and listening skill?

Poems, songs, and book are usually known to help with your listening skills and clearly, your fluency. With movies, it seems different to me for some reason. Movies have a lot of stuff going on with ...
20
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4answers
228 views

How can gamification improve language learning?

Take a look at Duolingo and Babbel. Both offer online language learning experiences with one major difference: Duolingo claims to be a more "gamified" experience, meaning that you lose some progress ...
29
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2answers
648 views

According to scientific research, which languages take the least time to learn for a native English speaker?

Basically what I'm just asking in the question's title. By learning a language, I mean being able to fluently speak it, understand it, write it, and read it. I would think French or German. Please ...
2
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0answers
32 views

What is the best manual (non-program) research-backed SRS spacing?

I am learning Japanese Kanji via Remembering the Kanji, but this question could apply to any vocab or grammar flashcard sets. I know that programs such an Anki have an algorithm that decides the best ...
7
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1answer
129 views

Is there any such paper that shows passive listening helps language learning?

I have been searching on Google Scholar to find a paper presenting research results on whether passive listening helps learning a language, but I could not find any. Is there any such work that shows ...
2
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0answers
32 views

Russian Book Recommendations - Self Study

I’m looking for books to learn Russian, specifically the overall grammar “rules”: conjugations, declensions, etc. Level: Beginner up to advanced. The books should be for self study. For reference, I ...
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0answers
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Is there some research comparing the results between grammar, text comprehension and vocabulary exercises for language learners?

I want scientific ressources of why some exercises are good for learning language. Any ressource will be useful for the literature I am collecting.
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0answers
51 views

Is there an observable Dunning-Kruger-style effect whereby the most difficult languages for a student to learn are initially considered easy?

When I started learning Chinese, overconfidence led to me thinking it was "easy". However as I progress, I realize not only how little I know, but also how ignorant I was early on: I was ...
9
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2answers
129 views

Does a good pronunciation improve one's ability to learn a language?

My father is a native Spanish speaker. He struggles with English pronunciation, and even though he has studied many English courses, he seems to be stuck. Once I talked with a phonetics teacher, with ...
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0answers
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Can we define a Process describing the way we discover and learn new words in our mother tongue?

Can we define a Process describing the way we discover and learn new words in our mother tongue? This could apply to a child who is learning to speak as well to an adult. Consider that you discover a ...
11
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1answer
118 views

Are there any studies on what motivates people to learn artistic languages such as Klingon, Dothraki and the Middle-earth languages?

The fictional worlds created in science fiction and fantasy sometimes contain characters that speak languages invented for these fictional worlds. These fictional languages are a category of ...
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5answers
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Have there been any studies into detrimental effects of language learning?

There have been many studies into the varied benefits of being bilingual, but things are rarely uniformly beneficial. Have there been any studies into whether or not there are detrimental effects to ...
3
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0answers
28 views

Is there any evidence based on research that reading certain types of texts can be harmful to your language learning?

I've been learning Italian for some years (at present my level is C1): during that time I've been essentially a self-learner, with the exception of a few months, and I've been a quite active user of ...
6
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1answer
215 views

What are the benefits of extensive reading?

What are the benefits of extensive reading? More, specifically, in what ways is extensive reading helpful for learning a target language? Responses based on research would be appreciated.
3
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0answers
43 views

Does the similarity between closely related language contribute to the effectiveness of learning them simultaneously?

Basically what I'm interested in is whether there is any research on whether the linguistic similarity of two languages that are learnt simultaneously contributes to the effectiveness of learning them....
12
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2answers
164 views

How to use subtitles most effectvely?

I have an intermediate level in my target language (L2), which means that when I watch films without subtitles I understand relatively little. Turning on L2 subtitles increases my understanding to a ...
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0answers
70 views

Based on research, is it better to learn a new language in your mother tongue?

I live in a multilingual country and often people that visit a language course will have the class in one of the languages spoken here, let's say French. But most of these people do not speak a lot of ...
5
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0answers
35 views

Is the number of exposures required for retaining new words related to the teaching method?

Recently, Rebecca J. Stones asked, Does it take “about 50 exposures for most words to be retained in long term memory”? The question was about a claim by Terry Waltz that classroom learners need a few ...
4
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0answers
36 views

Is there evidence that tongue twisters help with listening and pronunciation?

The motivation for this question is a Chinese.SE answer: Have you tried practicing with tongue twisters (绕口令)? ... They can help with both listening and pronunciation. Repetition is really the only ...
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2answers
91 views

What are some of the most useful methods of teaching English grammar?

As a practising English teacher I have observed that teaching of grammar does not help the learners to speak or write fluently or even correctly especially in speech.only a few ...
17
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2answers
171 views

Learn language learning techniques in school before starting to learn foreign languages?

In countries where the main language is not a world language, students often learn foreign languages in school. However, students are not taught about how to learn a language effectively. Has any ...
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0answers
81 views

Do any studies show what the effect is of skipping daily language practice for one day? [closed]

Most language teachers that you talk to strongly recommend daily practice. Some applications, like Duolingo, add incentives to encourage users to practice every day. Is there actually evidence that ...
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0answers
29 views

Young kids learning L3 (and L4)

I have been trying to locate studies on language learning and younger kids (2 y.o. to 5 y.o.), but so far have only found studies that deal with L2 learning (e.g. https://sites.ualberta.ca/~jparadis/...
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1answer
151 views

Are there any studies on the propaedeutic value of international auxiliary languages other than Esperanto?

One of the reasons why experts recommend learning Esperanto is its propaedeutic value, which has been the subject of several studies. However, Esperanto is not the only (international) auxiliary ...
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2answers
110 views

What are the main causes of foreign language anxiety in learners of Chinese?

Wikipedia defines foreign language anxiety as follows: Foreign language anxiety, or xenoglossophobia, is the feeling of unease, worry, nervousness and apprehension experienced in learning or using ...
5
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2answers
876 views

Are paper flash cards better for retention than digital flash cards (both self made)?

Language Learning Stack Exchange currently has sixteen questions about flash-cards, fifteen questions about anki and twenty questions about spaced-repetition. There is no doubt that spaced repetition ...
21
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1answer
1k views

Is it easier for native Japanese speakers to learn Korean, or Korean speakers to learn Japanese?

Japanese and Korean are very similar from a grammatical point of view and it is even possible to translate word for word without losing too much meaning. With respect to pronunciation, Japanese seems ...
6
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1answer
73 views

Is there a scientific evidence of class / teacher importance for adult learners?

The role of a teacher in teaching languages to adults is not clear. By roles, I mean, for example: facilitator, manager, assessor, resources, participant and counselor. Suppose learners concentrate ...
5
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0answers
40 views

Is there any evidence that correcting a learner's oral mistakes in class has a negative impact?

In a comment on the question Is there a scientific evidence of class / teacher importance for adult learners? Gavenkoa makes the following claim: There is evidence that certain teaching activities ...
7
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3answers
166 views

Is there evidence that languages with complex grammar take longer to learn as a mother tongue?

This question is about learning to speak a language as a mother tongue (i.e., from birth (L1), not as a second language (L2)). Some languages have more grammar rules than others (number of cases, ...
6
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1answer
76 views

Do gender differences affect language learning strategies?

As far as I know, there have been many discussions and a considerable amount of research about differences in learning between boys and girls, or men and women. See for example: Gender differences in ...
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0answers
21 views

Are there any studies on the effectiveness of school trips abroad on language learning?

In the UK, stricter health and safety regulations have made school trips abroad harder to organize and this has reduced the number of opportunities for British children to experience a foreign ...
8
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1answer
110 views

According to research, should related words be taught together?

On this site, we already have a question about learning related words together (or not) as an autonomous learner using a spaced repetition system. At the time of writing, that question does not have ...
21
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3answers
444 views

According to scientific research, which languages take the least time to learn for a native Japanese speaker?

Has there been research done about which languages are generally the easiest to learn for an average native Japanese speaker? Do they have an easier time learning Mandarin than learning a Western ...
16
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3answers
306 views

Can the McGurk effect also help develop pronunciation?

Seeing someone's mouth movements can influence what your brain processes a word to be (see McGurk effect), and hearing someone talk can also help you develop your pronunciation for that language. ...
11
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1answer
114 views

Evidence that translating L2 into L1 improves L2 acquisition

I run a project where young bilingual volunteers translate English-language media into the home language for their families. I believe one of the benefits is that, because our volunteers have to ...
4
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0answers
217 views

What's a Japanese language-learning website with interlinear gloss translations?

I've been trying to find one of these for years. I love the wikipedia examples where they have a sentence, a word-by-word gloss, and an English translation. Like this: 太陽が|東の|空に|昇る。 taiyō ga | ...
3
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0answers
36 views

Sufficient grammar for a particular purpose

When I travel I enjoy trying to learn as much of the language as possible before I go. However, I often focus strongly on vocabulary, since I find that it's the most useful if I only have a short ...
17
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4answers
540 views

Does learning a language consistently every day help you learn it sooner?

I've always thought this to be true, but I'd like some evidence to back it up. I'm assuming that I study about 20 minutes a day all seven days a week compared to studying about 70 minutes any 2 days a ...
6
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1answer
194 views

Evidence that learning radicals speeds up character learning in Japanese?

Characters — in Chinese or Japanese (or Korean Hanja) — can be learnt in various ways, and it is plausible that paying attention to radicals helps memorization and retention. But is there any hard ...
4
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1answer
67 views

How does flow relate to language competency? Can it be taught/learned?

Psychological flow is kind of like going on autopilot, or being completely immersed in an activity, and is also related to high performance levels. I was reading about flow in music, but it reminded ...
9
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1answer
109 views

Research papers on improving speaking fluency?

I'm currently looking for scholarly research papers that discuss how speaking fluency is developed, especially for people learning English. If there are any recommended readings, please share them ...
13
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1answer
150 views

Is it more efficient to make flashcards for L3 in L2 and L1?

I'm currently learning Japanese as my L3, using flashcards (Anki) for kanji vocabulary. My L1 is Portuguese and L2 is English (fluent). Is it more efficient to make flashcards for L3 in L2 and L1? ...
67
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5answers
2k views

Are there any studies which address the effectiveness of studying multiple related languages simultaneously?

What studies, if any, address the study of multiple related languages (as in a relatively high level of mutual intelligibility--Spanish, Portuguese, Italian & French; Dutch & German, etc) ...
9
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3answers
139 views

Learning language by singing songs?

Learn languages by memorizing rhymed poems is about pro/cons of using poems to learn a language. What about using songs? Songs might use more modern language, avoiding the cons mentioned for poems. ...
6
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2answers
229 views

Is learning vocabulary by means of (bilingual) vocabulary lists inefficient, and if yes, why?

A previous question, "Is it bad to only learn vocabulary through conversation/applied use?" (The question is now only visible to users with 2000+ reps) looked like three questions combined into a ...
6
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0answers
79 views

According to research, how well do speed reading skills transfer to other languages?

According to Wikipedia, speed reading is any of several techniques used to improve one's ability to read quickly. Speed reading methods include chunking and minimizing subvocalization. There are ...