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Questions tagged [reference-request]

For questions asking for a published journal to be included as reference in your answer. Please avoid answering questions tagged [reference-request] without referencing a published journal.

8
votes
2answers
172 views

My L2 and L3 are similar, will using L2/L3 flashcards increase or reduce the possibility of mixing them up?

Here's a follow-up to this question. I'm afraid that learning L3 may interfere with my L2. I'm wondering about a good strategy for making the two languages separate if I use flashcards. How to avoid ...
7
votes
0answers
56 views

Are there any studies showing that you will tend to be more fluent in the first L2 you learn compared to your L3?

As an example, take the case of someone who speaks English as an L1, and wants to become fluent in both Spanish and French. If they learn Spanish first and French second, will they tend to be more ...
10
votes
1answer
110 views

How to use subtitles most effectvely?

I have an intermediate level in my target language (L2), which means that when I watch films without subtitles I understand relatively little. Turning on L2 subtitles increases my understanding to a ...
15
votes
2answers
646 views

What skills does reading aloud improve?

Have there been any studies about the benefits of reading aloud for language acquisition?
8
votes
1answer
81 views

Are there any studies on what motivates people to learn artistic languages such as Klingon, Dothraki and the Middle-earth languages?

The fictional worlds created in science fiction and fantasy sometimes contain characters that speak languages invented for these fictional worlds. These fictional languages are a category of ...
9
votes
2answers
107 views

Are there any studies on what motivates people to learn international auxiliary languages such as Esperanto, Interlingua and Afrihili?

Esperanto is the best-known international auxiliary language (or IAL); it even has an Esperanto Stack Exchange site. But there are several other IALs, such as Interlingua, Ido and Afrihili. Are ...
11
votes
1answer
257 views

Are there studies showing that learning an L2 makes it easier to learn an L3?

Assuming that I'm fluent in an L1 and an L2, are there any studies showing that already overcoming the barrier of learning the L2 aids my process in learning an L3?
4
votes
1answer
104 views

Are there any studies on the propaedeutic value of international auxiliary languages other than Esperanto?

One of the reasons why experts recommend learning Esperanto is its propaedeutic value, which has been the subject of several studies. However, Esperanto is not the only (international) auxiliary ...
11
votes
0answers
206 views

Learning L3 through L1, L2 or L1+L2? [closed]

I can study L3 with L1 or L2 material/textbooks/dictionaries, or combination of L1 and L2 materials (switching daily for instance). Which will be most beneficial? My main concern is retention of new ...
9
votes
0answers
137 views

Evidence that the European Day of Languages motivates EU citizens to learn foreign languages?

Today, 26 September, is (or was) the European Day of Languages. The Council of Europe came up with the idea of a European Day of Languages in 2001, the European Year of Languages. The initiative has ...
7
votes
1answer
71 views

How does the existence of a case system affect the learnability of a foreign language?

Case is a grammatical category that can be found in Slavic languages, Finnic languages, Greek, Japanese, Tamil, etc. (The Finnic language Veps apparently has 23 grammatical cases, and tops even ...
16
votes
1answer
216 views

Are there any surveys or studies on what motivates people to learn minority languages and/or rare languages?

People have various kinds of reasons to learn a language. Sometimes a foreign language is just imposed on them at school, sometimes their choice is based on the perceived "importance" or usefulness of ...
14
votes
2answers
178 views

Grading vocabulary: How correct is necessary?

When grading vocabulary (either in a traditional classroom/test environment, or spaced repetition), is there any research into how to most effectively grade responses? Examples of possible answers (...
10
votes
0answers
88 views

Research on effectiveness of language teaching in ulpans / ulpanim?

After the creation of Israel in 1948, ulpans (or ulpanim) were set up for the intensive study of Hebrew. Today, ulpans still exist; they are institutes or schools "designed to teach adult immigrants ...
6
votes
1answer
98 views

Is there any research on the effectiveness of learning verb tables?

I own books with verb tables for French, German and Spanish, i.e. for several languages with rather elaborate verb conjugations. At school, I was made to learn such conjugations for French verbs and ...
5
votes
2answers
96 views

Is there any evidence that vocabulary level is a good measure for predicting high economy income later?

In the Wikipedia page of Johnson O' Connor, there is a sentence says (I add the boldness): A person’s vocabulary level was the best single measure for predicting occupational success in every area. ...
17
votes
4answers
396 views

Does learning a language consistently every day help you learn it sooner?

I've always thought this to be true, but I'd like some evidence to back it up. I'm assuming that I study about 20 minutes a day all seven days a week compared to studying about 70 minutes any 2 days a ...
9
votes
1answer
79 views

Is there research showing the detrimental psychological effects of learning a language through full immersion?

I know from hearsay and can sympathize from my own experience that many people experience depression overseas when learning a language fully immersed. I can imagine that this leads to low-confidence ...
5
votes
1answer
87 views

What are some psychological benefits to learning a second language?

Just what it sounds like. It seems like we already have a question on the detrimental effects of learning two or more languages. What are some psychological advantages to learning a second language?
8
votes
1answer
58 views

What effects does being consistent in time and place of language study have on language learning?

I, for one, do my best to study my new language whenever I can, whether it be crammed into my busy morning or late at night. However, I've heard on several online language learning groups that ...
10
votes
2answers
255 views

According to scientific evidence, how many languages can the average human retain in their mind and still communicate fluently in?

Note: I'm not asking about how many languages the average human knows. Rather, I'm asking how many languages the average human brain can hold, and still allow the person to speak all of them fluently. ...
14
votes
2answers
129 views

Does learning other aspects of culture help with learning the language?

In my Latin class, we are constantly learning about the history and culture of Rome. Do studies show that this helps with language learning or is it unnecessary?
24
votes
2answers
237 views

Does writing out by hand generally strengthen retention better than computerized memorization methods?

Language learning (well, in my experience) involves a lot of review. A LOT. Pounding that vocabulary into my brain again and again; over and over. I spend a lot of time on the computer, so, naturally,...
18
votes
3answers
173 views

How can gamification improve language learning?

Take a look at Duolingo and Babbel. Both offer online language learning experiences with one major difference: Duolingo claims to be a more "gamified" experience, meaning that you lose some progress ...
19
votes
2answers
720 views

How can watching movies help improve fluency and listening skill?

Poems, songs, and book are usually known to help with your listening skills and clearly, your fluency. With movies, it seems different to me for some reason. Movies have a lot of stuff going on with ...
18
votes
1answer
142 views

Are there studies showing that language study is more effective in a group than individually?

Often, it's claimed that in a group, you have people to practice verbal exercises with, as well as potential proofreaders and error-checkers to verify the grammar and spelling of your work. However, I'...
14
votes
1answer
153 views

What detrimental effects can learning a second language have on the first?

There was a similar question regarding bilingual education here: Have there been any studies into detrimental effects of language learning? My question alludes to a different setting, specifically to ...
16
votes
1answer
317 views

Effectiveness of tandem learning

Since the early 2000s, it has become quite fashionable to do a tandem language learning. You find a native speaker who wants to learn your language, you meet and talk about anything. In ideal case, ...
21
votes
1answer
391 views

Is it easier for native Japanese speakers to learn Korean, or Korean speakers to learn Japanese?

Japanese and Korean are very similar from a grammatical point of view and it is even possible to translate word for word without losing too much meaning. With respect to pronunciation, Japanese seems ...
4
votes
1answer
58 views

Brain benefit with respect to age

If someone is past their language-learning prime/"critical period", does the age at which they learn a language affect how much learning that language benefits their brain, and if so, in what ways? ...
11
votes
2answers
86 views

Learn to read and write for a multilingual pre-school child

My child is 4 year old and is reasonably fluent in 3 languages (based on the same alphabet). He is now interested to learn to read and write. The problem being that alphabet, and reading approaches ...
15
votes
3answers
218 views

What factors make a language difficult to learn from the learner's POV?

Are there any studies which address which factors—if there are any—have more influence on the learner to consider a new language as difficult to learn? Factors could be: The mother tongue of the ...
10
votes
2answers
129 views

Are some people good at learning grammar first, and other in a natural way first?

I could dare to say that most of people like to learn a new language in a so called "natural way", that is reading and understanding basic dialogues with little to no grammar that is getting bigger as ...
26
votes
2answers
195 views

Do learners with an L1 without articles have problems using them in an L2 with articles?

Before learning English, I had acquired fluency in Persian and I'm a native speaker of Azeri Turkish. Neither language has articles, but I didn't find myself in trouble deciphering their usage in ...
5
votes
0answers
62 views

Is there evidence that supports the idea that vocabulary is more important than grammar in conversation? [duplicate]

"Focus on your vocabulary first, then fix your grammar." This is a maxim that has been drilled into my head over several years of my Spanish teachers saying this, but is there really any truth to ...
28
votes
2answers
293 views

What research is there on the efficiency of online language learning compared to in person learning?

Have there been enough studies to draw any definitive conclusions on how well sites such as Duolingo or Livemocha work in comparison to classroom learning?
50
votes
5answers
843 views

Have there been any studies into detrimental effects of language learning?

There have been many studies into the varied benefits of being bilingual, but things are rarely uniformly beneficial. Have there been any studies into whether or not there are detrimental effects to ...
21
votes
3answers
336 views

According to scientific research, which languages take the least time to learn for a native Japanese speaker?

Has there been research done about which languages are generally the easiest to learn for an average native Japanese speaker? Do they have an easier time learning Mandarin than learning a Western ...
16
votes
3answers
263 views

Can the McGurk effect also help develop pronunciation?

Seeing someone's mouth movements can influence what your brain processes a word to be (see McGurk effect), and hearing someone talk can also help you develop your pronunciation for that language. ...
17
votes
1answer
140 views

Is there evidence that learning a language written with the same alphabet as your native language can make you learn the language faster?

For example, if I was learning Spanish (written with the Latin alphabet) while being a native speaker of English (also written with the Latin alphabet), is there any scientific research that confirms ...
14
votes
2answers
147 views

Will learning ASL interfere with other languages I am learning?

I am learning Italian right now. I've heard many people say that learning multiple languages at once is a risky idea, since you can easily confuse them. However, would that apply to ASL? I've heard ...
11
votes
2answers
136 views

Are there studies testing to see what the the ideal age to begin learning a second language is?

Would it be easier to learn a second language as a child, when you've had limited exposure to language in general, or as an adult, when you already have a strong basis in your first language? Are ...
28
votes
2answers
520 views

According to scientific research, which languages take the least time to learn for a native English speaker?

Basically what I'm just asking in the question's title. By learning a language, I mean being able to fluently speak it, understand it, write it, and read it. I would think French or German. Please ...
27
votes
4answers
384 views

Which of these is more effective: having a silent period, or speaking from day one?

Nowadays, people usually learn languages in one of two ways: silent learning or speaking the new language from day one. They have their pros and cons but differ from each other greatly. A silent ...
10
votes
1answer
127 views

Are there studies on the effectiveness of Rosetta Stone as a language learning tool?

Rosetta Stone gets a lot of publicity, perhaps because of its large marketing budget. And finding individual reviews is easy--some people love it, some hate it, some have mixed feelings. But has any ...
18
votes
1answer
195 views

How can immersion in the language's country improve beginner skills?

As a beginner in language X, how will immersion in that language's country help learn the language faster and better? Are there any studies that show that visiting the language's country helps to ...
35
votes
1answer
475 views

How does immersion passively help with learning a language?

It's a commonly claimed idea that just by being surrounded by people speaking a language you can become familiar with it. Sometimes it's even claimed that this can occur without actively learning the ...
34
votes
2answers
744 views

Has the “direct method” of language learning been shown to be superior to translation-based methods?

The textbook I'm using to learn Latin, called Lingua Latina per se Illustrata, is an example of the "direct method" of language instruction. The text is entirely written in Latin, and progresses ...
62
votes
5answers
2k views

Are there any studies which address the effectiveness of studying multiple related languages simultaneously?

What studies, if any, address the study of multiple related languages (as in a relatively high level of mutual intelligibility--Spanish, Portuguese, Italian & French; Dutch & German, etc) ...