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Questions tagged [reference-request]

For questions asking for a published journal to be included as reference in your answer. Please avoid answering questions tagged [reference-request] without referencing a published journal.

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0answers
22 views

Young kids learning L3 (and L4)

I have been trying to locate studies on language learning and younger kids (2 y.o. to 5 y.o.), but so far have only found studies that deal with L2 learning (e.g. https://sites.ualberta.ca/~jparadis/...
4
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1answer
104 views

Are there any studies on the propaedeutic value of international auxiliary languages other than Esperanto?

One of the reasons why experts recommend learning Esperanto is its propaedeutic value, which has been the subject of several studies. However, Esperanto is not the only (international) auxiliary ...
5
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2answers
63 views

What are the main causes of foreign language anxiety in learners of Chinese?

Wikipedia defines foreign language anxiety as follows: Foreign language anxiety, or xenoglossophobia, is the feeling of unease, worry, nervousness and apprehension experienced in learning or using ...
5
votes
2answers
149 views

Are paper flash cards better for retention than digital flash cards (both self made)?

Language Learning Stack Exchange currently has sixteen questions about flash-cards, fifteen questions about anki and twenty questions about spaced-repetition. There is no doubt that spaced repetition ...
21
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1answer
391 views

Is it easier for native Japanese speakers to learn Korean, or Korean speakers to learn Japanese?

Japanese and Korean are very similar from a grammatical point of view and it is even possible to translate word for word without losing too much meaning. With respect to pronunciation, Japanese seems ...
6
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1answer
65 views

Is there a scientific evidence of class / teacher importance for adult learners?

The role of a teacher in teaching languages to adults is not clear. By roles, I mean, for example: facilitator, manager, assessor, resources, participant and counselor. Suppose learners concentrate ...
5
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0answers
38 views

Is there any evidence that correcting a learner's oral mistakes in class has a negative impact?

In a comment on the question Is there a scientific evidence of class / teacher importance for adult learners? Gavenkoa makes the following claim: There is evidence that certain teaching activities ...
7
votes
2answers
138 views

Which SRS algorithm yields greatest evidence-based remembering

Spaced Repetition Systems (SRS) such as Anki, SuperMemo, Mnemosyne, Memrise, etc, use their own specific algorithms for increasing your ability to remember new words and sentences. Is there evidence ...
7
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3answers
155 views

Is there evidence that languages with complex grammar take longer to learn as a mother tongue?

This question is about learning to speak a language as a mother tongue (i.e., from birth (L1), not as a second language (L2)). Some languages have more grammar rules than others (number of cases, ...
5
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1answer
53 views

Do gender differences affect language learning strategies?

As far as I know, there have been many discussions and a considerable amount of research about differences in learning between boys and girls, or men and women. See for example: Gender differences in ...
2
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0answers
19 views

Are there any studies on the effectiveness of school trips abroad on language learning?

In the UK, stricter health and safety regulations have made school trips abroad harder to organize and this has reduced the number of opportunities for British children to experience a foreign ...
8
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1answer
86 views

According to research, should related words be taught together?

On this site, we already have a question about learning related words together (or not) as an autonomous learner using a spaced repetition system. At the time of writing, that question does not have ...
21
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3answers
336 views

According to scientific research, which languages take the least time to learn for a native Japanese speaker?

Has there been research done about which languages are generally the easiest to learn for an average native Japanese speaker? Do they have an easier time learning Mandarin than learning a Western ...
16
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3answers
263 views

Can the McGurk effect also help develop pronunciation?

Seeing someone's mouth movements can influence what your brain processes a word to be (see McGurk effect), and hearing someone talk can also help you develop your pronunciation for that language. ...
10
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1answer
86 views

Evidence that translating L2 into L1 improves L2 acquisition

I run a project where young bilingual volunteers translate English-language media into the home language for their families. I believe one of the benefits is that, because our volunteers have to ...
4
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0answers
43 views

What's a Japanese language-learning website with interlinear gloss translations?

I've been trying to find one of these for years. I love the wikipedia examples where they have a sentence, a word-by-word gloss, and an English translation. Like this: 太陽が|東の|空に|昇る。 taiyō ga | ...
6
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2answers
161 views

What are the benefits of intensive reading?

As a corollary to this question, what are the benefits of intensive reading for acquiring a second language? A reference paper would be nice but is not required. Intensive reading refers to reading ...
28
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2answers
519 views

According to scientific research, which languages take the least time to learn for a native English speaker?

Basically what I'm just asking in the question's title. By learning a language, I mean being able to fluently speak it, understand it, write it, and read it. I would think French or German. Please ...
3
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0answers
29 views

Sufficient grammar for a particular purpose

When I travel I enjoy trying to learn as much of the language as possible before I go. However, I often focus strongly on vocabulary, since I find that it's the most useful if I only have a short ...
17
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4answers
396 views

Does learning a language consistently every day help you learn it sooner?

I've always thought this to be true, but I'd like some evidence to back it up. I'm assuming that I study about 20 minutes a day all seven days a week compared to studying about 70 minutes any 2 days a ...
6
votes
1answer
171 views

Evidence that learning radicals speeds up character learning in Japanese?

Characters — in Chinese or Japanese (or Korean Hanja) — can be learnt in various ways, and it is plausible that paying attention to radicals helps memorization and retention. But is there any hard ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

How does flow relate to language competency? Can it be taught/learned?

Psychological flow is kind of like going on autopilot, or being completely immersed in an activity, and is also related to high performance levels. I was reading about flow in music, but it reminded ...
9
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1answer
82 views

Research papers on improving speaking fluency?

I'm currently looking for scholarly research papers that discuss how speaking fluency is developed, especially for people learning English. If there are any recommended readings, please share them ...
5
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1answer
130 views

What are the benefits of extensive reading?

What are the benefits of extensive reading? More, specifically, in what ways is extensive reading helpful for learning a target language? Responses based on research would be appreciated.
13
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1answer
114 views

Is it more efficient to make flashcards for L3 in L2 and L1?

I'm currently learning Japanese as my L3, using flashcards (Anki) for kanji vocabulary. My L1 is Portuguese and L2 is English (fluent). Is it more efficient to make flashcards for L3 in L2 and L1? ...
62
votes
5answers
2k views

Are there any studies which address the effectiveness of studying multiple related languages simultaneously?

What studies, if any, address the study of multiple related languages (as in a relatively high level of mutual intelligibility--Spanish, Portuguese, Italian & French; Dutch & German, etc) ...
9
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3answers
95 views

Learning language by singing songs?

Learn languages by memorizing rhymed poems is about pro/cons of using poems to learn a language. What about using songs? Songs might use more modern language, avoiding the cons mentioned for poems. ...
6
votes
2answers
189 views

Is learning vocabulary by means of (bilingual) vocabulary lists inefficient, and if yes, why?

A previous question, "Is it bad to only learn vocabulary through conversation/applied use?" (The question is now only visible to users with 2000+ reps) looked like three questions combined into a ...
6
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0answers
69 views

According to research, how well do speed reading skills transfer to other languages?

According to Wikipedia, speed reading is any of several techniques used to improve one's ability to read quickly. Speed reading methods include chunking and minimizing subvocalization. There are ...
11
votes
2answers
86 views

Learn to read and write for a multilingual pre-school child

My child is 4 year old and is reasonably fluent in 3 languages (based on the same alphabet). He is now interested to learn to read and write. The problem being that alphabet, and reading approaches ...
13
votes
2answers
226 views

How useful is passive “background” listening?

I have seen many different opinions regarding the usefulness of, say, having a radio program on in the background while you work, do chores, etc. Some say that simply being able to hear the sounds and ...
6
votes
1answer
407 views

According to research, how effective is Memrise for learning vocabulary?

The Memrise website has a page about the scientific principles on which Memrise is based. The page also lists several articles and studies that support these principles. However, it does not list any ...
7
votes
1answer
106 views

Research on benefits of writing by hand when learning foreign languages

In the past, I sometimes did Chinese grammar exercises using pen and paper, and sometimes using a computer. In both cases, I wrote out the entire sentences (not just the answers) and had them reviewed ...
4
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0answers
52 views

Fluent in English and Spanish; according to scientific research, what order of learning other languages is most efficient? [closed]

I am a native speaker of the English language with 6 years of Spanish schooling. After re-establishing a fluent Spanish speaking status what should be the next language to learn? Latin seemed like ...
7
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1answer
30 views

Studies on using Kinect for learning or teaching sign language?

In 2013, developers at Microsoft Research worked on sign language recognition in Kinect devices in order to translate sign language (more specifically American Sign Language) into spoken words. ...
9
votes
1answer
147 views

How effective is induction as a language learning technique?

According to the Encyclopedia of Language Development, Induction is a type of reasoning that involves deriving general principles from specific examples. Induction is most often used to acquire ...
9
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0answers
137 views

Evidence that the European Day of Languages motivates EU citizens to learn foreign languages?

Today, 26 September, is (or was) the European Day of Languages. The Council of Europe came up with the idea of a European Day of Languages in 2001, the European Year of Languages. The initiative has ...
9
votes
1answer
82 views

When using spaced repetition, do I learn less when tired?

If I use Ankidroid in the evening, I am tired and don't perform very well. If I use it in the morning, my performance is better. Does better performance also imply I am learning the content more ...
4
votes
1answer
114 views

Is there any evidence that online language courses enable you to speak the language?

Many people try to learn a foreign language through an online language course. For example, FutureLearn hosts courses such as Introduction to Norwegian, Introduction to Dutch (three weeks), ...
9
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0answers
106 views

According to research, how effective is learning an L3 through an L2?

There's a language technique in the polyglot community known as "stacking", which is essentially the process of learning an L3 through an L2. According to research on this topic, what are the benefits ...
9
votes
1answer
111 views

What are the steps to native language acquisition for children?

I've been trying to find literature that talks about steps taken to typically learn a language. I know that based on what I've read that children start from a one-word stage to multi-word stage. What ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

What are important external factors in formal language learning?

Language learning is influenced by both internal and external factors. Internal factors include cognitive and affective factors such as intrinsic motivation, intelligence, anxiety, previous language ...
5
votes
0answers
63 views

Does ethnic background affect language learning strategies?

Drawing inspiration from the question Does ethnic background affect the speed of foreign language acquisition?, I would like to ask something more specific: Is there any research on how ethnic ...
9
votes
0answers
156 views

Do people fluent in two languages learn a third, unrelated language more easily?

The question in the title is strongly shortened. In full-length it goes like this: Do people who speak fluently two languages (which they have learned as a child) that are quite different from ...
5
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0answers
75 views

How long does the “priming” effect last for vocabulary study?

I'm looking for studies or other scientifically-solid information on the topic. But first, an explanation. I'm interested in the psychological phenomenon of priming as it relates to vocabulary study. ...
6
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0answers
44 views

Is it more advantageous to learn the writing system or the spoken form of a language first?

There are several primary aspects of a language, including both the writing system and the spoken form of a language. What does scientific research say about the order to learn these two factors when ...
16
votes
1answer
216 views

Are there any surveys or studies on what motivates people to learn minority languages and/or rare languages?

People have various kinds of reasons to learn a language. Sometimes a foreign language is just imposed on them at school, sometimes their choice is based on the perceived "importance" or usefulness of ...
7
votes
2answers
203 views

How do cloze flashcards compare to translation flashcards?

A cloze flashcard contains a sentence missing a word. For example: Mi hijo no puede ir al colegio, ______ está enfermo. Mi hijo no puede ir al colegio, porque está enfermo. Another form of ...
14
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2answers
147 views

Will learning ASL interfere with other languages I am learning?

I am learning Italian right now. I've heard many people say that learning multiple languages at once is a risky idea, since you can easily confuse them. However, would that apply to ASL? I've heard ...
8
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1answer
164 views

Should literacy in the L1 be taught before teaching reading & writing in an L2?

When teaching English as a foreign language to people who are not literate in their native language (L1), should learners first be taught to read and write in their native language? In other words, ...