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Questions tagged [reference-request]

For questions asking for a published journal to be included as reference in your answer. Please avoid answering questions tagged [reference-request] without referencing a published journal.

7
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1answer
57 views

According to research, should related words be taught together?

On this site, we already have a question about learning related words together (or not) as an autonomous learner using a spaced repetition system. At the time of writing, that question does not have ...
4
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0answers
27 views

What's a Japanese language-learning website with interlinear gloss translations?

I've been trying to find one of these for years. I love the wikipedia examples where they have a sentence, a word-by-word gloss, and an English translation. Like this: 太陽が|東の|空に|昇る。 taiyō ga | ...
6
votes
2answers
94 views

What are the benefits of intensive reading?

As a corollary to this question, what are the benefits of intensive reading for acquiring a second language? A reference paper would be nice but is not required. Intensive reading refers to reading ...
7
votes
1answer
70 views

Which SRS algorithm yields greatest evidence-based remembering

Spaced Repetition Systems (SRS) such as Anki, SuperMemo, Mnemosyne, Memrise, etc, use their own specific algorithms for increasing your ability to remember new words and sentences. Is there evidence ...
3
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0answers
26 views

Sufficient grammar for a particular purpose

When I travel I enjoy trying to learn as much of the language as possible before I go. However, I often focus strongly on vocabulary, since I find that it's the most useful if I only have a short ...
7
votes
2answers
114 views

Is there evidence that languages with complex grammar take longer to learn as a mother tongue?

This question is about learning to speak a language as a mother tongue (i.e., from birth (L1), not as a second language (L2)). Some languages have more grammar rules than others (number of cases, ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

How does flow relate to language competency? Can it be taught/learned?

Psychological flow is kind of like going on autopilot, or being completely immersed in an activity, and is also related to high performance levels. I was reading about flow in music, but it reminded ...
10
votes
1answer
78 views

Evidence that translating L2 into L1 improves L2 acquisition

I run a project where young bilingual volunteers translate English-language media into the home language for their families. I believe one of the benefits is that, because our volunteers have to ...
9
votes
3answers
83 views

Learning language by singing songs?

Learn languages by memorizing rhymed poems is about pro/cons of using poems to learn a language. What about using songs? Songs might use more modern language, avoiding the cons mentioned for poems. ...
13
votes
2answers
182 views

How useful is passive “background” listening?

I have seen many different opinions regarding the usefulness of, say, having a radio program on in the background while you work, do chores, etc. Some say that simply being able to hear the sounds and ...
13
votes
1answer
99 views

Is it more efficient to make flashcards for L3 in L2 and L1?

I'm currently learning Japanese as my L3, using flashcards (Anki) for kanji vocabulary. My L1 is Portuguese and L2 is English (fluent). Is it more efficient to make flashcards for L3 in L2 and L1? ...
7
votes
1answer
27 views

Studies on using Kinect for learning or teaching sign language?

In 2013, developers at Microsoft Research worked on sign language recognition in Kinect devices in order to translate sign language (more specifically American Sign Language) into spoken words. ...
4
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0answers
48 views

Fluent in English and Spanish; according to scientific research, what order of learning other languages is most efficient? [closed]

I am a native speaker of the English language with 6 years of Spanish schooling. After re-establishing a fluent Spanish speaking status what should be the next language to learn? Latin seemed like ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Is there any evidence that online language courses enable you to speak the language?

Many people try to learn a foreign language through an online language course. For example, FutureLearn hosts courses such as Introduction to Norwegian, Introduction to Dutch (three weeks), ...
8
votes
0answers
89 views

According to research, how effective is learning an L3 through an L2?

There's a language technique in the polyglot community known as "stacking", which is essentially the process of learning an L3 through an L2. According to research on this topic, what are the benefits ...
9
votes
1answer
77 views

When using spaced repetition, do I learn less when tired?

If I use Ankidroid in the evening, I am tired and don't perform very well. If I use it in the morning, my performance is better. Does better performance also imply I am learning the content more ...
4
votes
1answer
46 views

What are important external factors in formal language learning?

Language learning is influenced by both internal and external factors. Internal factors include cognitive and affective factors such as intrinsic motivation, intelligence, anxiety, previous language ...
5
votes
0answers
60 views

How long does the “priming” effect last for vocabulary study?

I'm looking for studies or other scientifically-solid information on the topic. But first, an explanation. I'm interested in the psychological phenomenon of priming as it relates to vocabulary study. ...
7
votes
1answer
96 views

What are the steps to native language acquisition for children?

I've been trying to find literature that talks about steps taken to typically learn a language. I know that based on what I've read that children start from a one-word stage to multi-word stage. What ...
8
votes
0answers
149 views

Do people fluent in two languages learn a third, unrelated language more easily?

The question in the title is strongly shortened. In full-length it goes like this: Do people who speak fluently two languages (which they have learned as a child) that are quite different from ...
7
votes
1answer
98 views

Research on benefits of writing by hand when learning foreign languages

In the past, I sometimes did Chinese grammar exercises using pen and paper, and sometimes using a computer. In both cases, I wrote out the entire sentences (not just the answers) and had them reviewed ...
6
votes
0answers
40 views

Is it more advantageous to learn the writing system or the spoken form of a language first?

There are several primary aspects of a language, including both the writing system and the spoken form of a language. What does scientific research say about the order to learn these two factors when ...
9
votes
1answer
135 views

How effective is induction as a language learning technique?

According to the Encyclopedia of Language Development, Induction is a type of reasoning that involves deriving general principles from specific examples. Induction is most often used to acquire ...
9
votes
1answer
78 views

Research papers on improving speaking fluency?

I'm currently looking for scholarly research papers that discuss how speaking fluency is developed, especially for people learning English. If there are any recommended readings, please share them ...
5
votes
1answer
113 views

What are the benefits of extensive reading?

What are the benefits of extensive reading? More, specifically, in what ways is extensive reading helpful for learning a target language? Responses based on research would be appreciated.
6
votes
2answers
147 views

How do cloze flashcards compare to translation flashcards?

A cloze flashcard contains a sentence missing a word. For example: Mi hijo no puede ir al colegio, ______ está enfermo. Mi hijo no puede ir al colegio, porque está enfermo. Another form of ...
8
votes
1answer
233 views

How many new words at a time?

I have a 1000 flash cards of new words. I pick a flash card at random to test if I remember the word. If not, I take a moment to try to remember it. With a 1000 flash cards I feel that I see too many ...
6
votes
1answer
135 views

Should literacy in the L1 be taught before teaching reading & writing in an L2?

When teaching English as a foreign language to people who are not literate in their native language (L1), should learners first be taught to read and write in their native language? In other words, ...
5
votes
0answers
63 views

Does ethnic background affect language learning strategies?

Drawing inspiration from the question Does ethnic background affect the speed of foreign language acquisition?, I would like to ask something more specific: Is there any research on how ethnic ...
5
votes
1answer
160 views

Evidence that learning radicals speeds up character learning in Japanese?

Characters — in Chinese or Japanese (or Korean Hanja) — can be learnt in various ways, and it is plausible that paying attention to radicals helps memorization and retention. But is there any hard ...
8
votes
2answers
90 views

Does a good pronunciation improve one's ability to learn a language?

My father is a native Spanish speaker. He struggles with English pronunciation, and even though he has studied many English courses, he seems to be stuck. Once I talked with a phonetics teacher, with ...
10
votes
1answer
128 views

Does ethnic background affect the speed of foreign language acquisition?

Are there any studies proving that language learners of a certain ethnic background have an advantage in learning languages over people of other ethnicities?
13
votes
1answer
79 views

Is there any evidence that a specific type of writing is more beneficial than others for learning?

Have there been any studies done on if certain types of writing (fiction, personal/diary type, scientific, etc.) benefit a second language learner more than others? To be clear, this would be the ...
6
votes
1answer
56 views

Are there any studies on the effectiveness of learning typologically similar languages?

Flimzy previously asked, Are there any studies which address the effectiveness of studying multiple related languages simultaneously? Genetic relationships between languages (as established through ...
10
votes
2answers
154 views

Evidence that learning radicals speeds up character learning in Chinese?

Characters — in Chinese or Japanese (or Korean Hanja) — can be learnt in various ways, and it is plausible that paying attention to radicals helps memorisation and retention. But is there any hard ...
6
votes
0answers
63 views

According to research, how well do speed reading skills transfer to other languages?

According to Wikipedia, speed reading is any of several techniques used to improve one's ability to read quickly. Speed reading methods include chunking and minimizing subvocalization. There are ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Effectiveness of reformulating incorrect sentences as feedback?

My Chinese language exchange partner naturally makes errors when speaking German. One form of feedback that I often use is reformulating the sentence he just spoke, so that he gets to hear a correct ...
8
votes
1answer
113 views

Does the law of diminishing returns apply to language practice?

Have there been any studies supporting the idea that the longer you practice a language each session, the less benefit you yield from it? I've always thought this was true, and thus I always tend to ...
5
votes
2answers
160 views

Is learning vocabulary by means of (bilingual) vocabulary lists inefficient, and if yes, why?

A previous question, "Is it bad to only learn vocabulary through conversation/applied use?" (The question is now only visible to users with 2000+ reps) looked like three questions combined into a ...
9
votes
1answer
193 views

What is the Representational Deficit Hypothesis?

I've been reading about second language acquisition, and I've come across the Representational Deficit Hypothesis (also known as the Failed Functional Features Hypothesis). What is it? And where can I ...
6
votes
1answer
127 views

Is recall study more effective than recognition study for learning vocabulary?

According to Tim Ferris, If you train for recall, you get recognition automatically; if you train for recognition, recall is terrible, or as slow as molasses. (See The Time Ferris Show, 19 June ...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

How does the existence of a separate present progressive tense affect the learnability of a foreign language?

In English, the present progressive tense has its own distinguished syntax. For example, the present progressive I am writing differs from the simple present tense I write. On the other hand, in ...
6
votes
1answer
354 views

According to research, how effective is Memrise for learning vocabulary?

The Memrise website has a page about the scientific principles on which Memrise is based. The page also lists several articles and studies that support these principles. However, it does not list any ...
8
votes
2answers
157 views

My L2 and L3 are similar, will using L2/L3 flashcards increase or reduce the possibility of mixing them up?

Here's a follow-up to this question. I'm afraid that learning L3 may interfere with my L2. I'm wondering about a good strategy for making the two languages separate if I use flashcards. How to avoid ...
7
votes
0answers
55 views

Are there any studies showing that you will tend to be more fluent in the first L2 you learn compared to your L3?

As an example, take the case of someone who speaks English as an L1, and wants to become fluent in both Spanish and French. If they learn Spanish first and French second, will they tend to be more ...
10
votes
1answer
102 views

How to use subtitles most effectvely?

I have an intermediate level in my target language (L2), which means that when I watch films without subtitles I understand relatively little. Turning on L2 subtitles increases my understanding to a ...
15
votes
2answers
596 views

What skills does reading aloud improve?

Have there been any studies about the benefits of reading aloud for language acquisition?
8
votes
1answer
75 views

Are there any studies on what motivates people to learn artistic languages such as Klingon, Dothraki and the Middle-earth languages?

The fictional worlds created in science fiction and fantasy sometimes contain characters that speak languages invented for these fictional worlds. These fictional languages are a category of ...
9
votes
2answers
100 views

Are there any studies on what motivates people to learn international auxiliary languages such as Esperanto, Interlingua and Afrihili?

Esperanto is the best-known international auxiliary language (or IAL); it even has an Esperanto Stack Exchange site. But there are several other IALs, such as Interlingua, Ido and Afrihili. Are ...
10
votes
1answer
253 views

Are there studies showing that learning an L2 makes it easier to learn an L3?

Assuming that I'm fluent in an L1 and an L2, are there any studies showing that already overcoming the barrier of learning the L2 aids my process in learning an L3?