I've noticed that I and others (sometimes entire communities) mispronounce words in a second language, which they could in theory pronounce well using phonemes of their first language, because of the words' spellings. For example, pronouncing "rough" as [rɔf] instead of [rɐf] because the first vowel is "o", for a speaker who has the sound [ɐ] in their first language. Or incorrectly putting the accent on a word's last syllable, because the word ends with a consonant. People can stick to these mispronunciations for years, not noticing their mistakes, and teaching them to others.
Are there any strategies or tactics that reduce these errors when learning new words? I'm not asking how to correctly guess the pronunciation of a word, but instead how not to be deaf to the real pronunciation, due to knowing the spelling of the word.