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I speak Marathi natively, but being born and raised in the US, I haven't been exposed to Hindi very much, if at all. What kinds of resources or approaches to learning ought I to use when learning Hindi, as opposed to if I were learning a language that isn't at all similar to one I know? I'm thinking it could be similar to what I'm doing in my coursework right now, where I'm learning Python, but already have background in Java, so I would have to deal more with the differences in syntactic minutiae versus learning pronunciations and sentence structures. Any recommendations on methods, books, or other resources would be greatly appreciated. :)

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You should be able to understand a fair amount of the dialogue in many of the so called "मसाला" movies from Bollywood. These movies don't have a deep plot, and have vocabulary that can be understood by even the most illiterate. Some examples include Don(1978) and Amar, Akbar, Anthony. If you are looking for something that is funny with a little bit more substance, I'd recommend 3 Idiots and Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara. A fair amount of Hindi words coincide with those from Marathi, and the "alphabet", aka स्वर and व्यंजन are almost identical. In fact, Marathi is more sophisticated with its alphabet, containing the व्यंजन ळ and the स्वर ॅ, and a few more. This means that you should have no difficulty in reading Hindi if you're already proficient in reading Marathi, If you're having trouble understanding the movies, I'd recommend using English subtitles to understand the words you might not recognize. Once you're fairly comfortable with the spoken language, you can move on read children's books, and progress from there.

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