I'm teaching a French girl English (I'm not a qualified teacher, I'm more of a language assistant, I'm an English native, I'm at university at the moment). She is having trouble with pronouncing words with 'gh', such as 'through' and 'borough'. I explained that in some words, the 'gh' sounds like an 'f' such as in 'rough' but in others it isn't and it's silent. I can't find a rule to teach her so she can follow unfortunately. Also for words with 'gn', sometimes the 'g' is pronounced, such as 'iGnore' or 'siGnature' but not in words such as 'campaign' or 'sign'. I've searched online that when the 'gn' is between syllables, it is pronounced, but it is silent at the start of a word, such as 'gnat', and at the end, such as 'foreign'. Is this correct? I've been using Wikipedia for this information. I'm realising how hard English pronunciation is for other speakers and saying 'you just have to keep reading to get used to it' can only get me so far!
Any help or tips for pronouncing these sounds and their etymology (and why they have or have not changed) which is suitable for a 16 year old girl would be greatly appreciated.