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I would never advise students to focus mostly on grammar, but spending some time focused on grammar can be useful (Paul Nation recommends spending 25% of time focused on language, including grammar and vocabulary, for example). Also, most students want to spend some time learning grammar and improving their grammar so they can speak and write more accurately.

All of the students in my classes are at different levels and have different needs, so they need to be able to address their needs independently, outside of class. What strategies / activities can I teach them so that they can improve their grammar independently?

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Writing and reading. Kind of ironic but to improve in writing and reading, you need to practice writing and reading.

With proper writing, student should be focused on their grammar so their stories/passages actually make sense/sounds right/is written correctly. People can write, then try to fix their mistakes, and finally compare their results with a grammar checker online. They could also do some online practice as well.

With reading, books are edited so they have proper grammar, unless the text is purposely made to have some mistakes (like in dialogue). Readers can learn from the text and learn new grammar and writing techniques that they can use. They could also try out some the new things they learned from the dialogue as well.

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