The equivalent organisation is Alliance Française. Similar to the Goethe Institut, they provide exams (in this case by the French Ministry of Education). These are listed here:
DELF - DALF
The DELF and DALF are diplomas awarded by the French Ministry of Education to prove the French-language skills of non-French candidates.
There are six independent diplomas, which correspond, respectively, to the six levels of the Council of Europe' s Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL).
They don't provide free resources, at least not similar to the vocabulary list by Goethe. They do however, sell a lot of different books (downloads PDF).
There are of course many vocabulary lists. I found this one which is ordered by theme and uses pictures to extend the meaning of the words. It's not as extensive as the lists by Goethe and some words are oddly specific, but it's an interesting list.