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There are several major dialects of Arabic, including Gulf Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, Levantine Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, and Maghrebi Arabic, as well as many more smaller dialects. Which of these dialects, if any, could be considered "closest" to Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and why?

Possible examples of similarities to MSA include retention of grammatical case, retention of grammatical mood, and no/less vowel shift compared to MSA. I'm sure there are many other possibilities.

EDIT: The answer to this question will be useful in guiding which dialect someone may want to learn. For example, if Gulf Arabic is most similar to MSA, then that will inform an Arabic learner's decision.

EDIT to share resources I found:

  • This question is currently closed because it is worded as a question about a specific language rather than about learning or teaching languages (or dialects). If it can be reworded in a way that makes it on-topic for this site, it will be re-opened. – AModHasNoName Jun 7 '18 at 15:36
  • Depends on the focus, the answer might be all or none. There's little similarity in General: mostly the situation is as follows the words might have a totally different spelling or use in cases letters are "falsly" pronounced. And many dialects know the mixing with words from other languages, such as Turkish, Berber, Farsi and even westeren Langugases such as English, French and Spanish. – Medi1Saif Jun 7 '18 at 15:37
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The Arabs are concerned about the dialect closest to the classical Arabic language between the Arab countries and their peoples, but according to the linguists there is no confirmed fact and what is rumored about Arab confessions, in what area is wrong and not documented.

But it can be said that the dialect of the Levant, Syria, Jordan and modern Palestine, not ancient, is very close to the classical language, which is one of the few Arabic languages ​​that have not been affected by foreign languages ​​and words of foreign languages, as in other dialects.

The response to the resort to the stars of art in the recent period to sing in this tone, and the provision of public programs has become reliable and may be the reason for the proximity of this dialect to the classical is not to control the forces of colonialism in any day school education in these countries, You can find exotic Turkish, English, Indian or French words for the language of these regions, which makes some specialists see them as the closest.

In addition to this, the dialects of the Arab Maghreb in general are considered to be the farthest from the clear Arabic language, as it is difficult for the people of the Levant to understand or decipher it,

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