There are several major dialects of Arabic, including Gulf Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, Levantine Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, and Maghrebi Arabic, as well as many more smaller dialects. Which of these dialects, if any, could be considered "closest" to Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and why?
Possible examples of similarities to MSA include retention of grammatical case, retention of grammatical mood, and no/less vowel shift compared to MSA. I'm sure there are many other possibilities.
EDIT: The answer to this question will be useful in guiding which dialect someone may want to learn. For example, if Gulf Arabic is most similar to MSA, then that will inform an Arabic learner's decision.
EDIT to share resources I found: