There is at least one language test that I have taken that maps its own levels to CEFR levels and that defines the number of words you need to know, namely Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK). HSK is a standardised test for Standard Chinese. Hanban, which administers the test for the Chinese Ministry of Education published a mapping between the 6 HSK levels and the 6 CEFR levels.
However, the Association of Teachers of Chinese in German Speaking Countries (Fachverband Chinesisch or FaCh) considers that mapping as too optimistic. So below is a mapping between HSK, the number of required words, and CEFR, based on the mapping by FaCh, which also matches my own experience. (See my website for a mapping that also includes Hanban's take on CEFR levels.)
- HSK 1 : 150 words (pinyin only): no CEFR level.
- HSK 2: 200 words (pinyin only): CEFR A1.1.
- HSK 3: 600 words: CEFR A1.
- HSK 4: 1200 words: CEFR A2.
- HSK 5: 2500 words: CEFR B1.
- HSK 6: over 5000 words: CEFR B2.
If memory serves, HSK 4 is the bare minimum that foreigners need to prove if they want to study a technical subject at a Chinese university; HSK 5 is the minimum level they need for cultural or literary subjects. (This is still quite low compared to the level C1 that foreign students need if they want to study at a German university.)
Of course, CEFR is not based on vocabulary size but on communication skills. Your communication skills depend not simply on your vocabulary but on what you can achieve with the vocabulary and grammatical structures you have mastered. This is why the hunt for vocabulary lists for CEFR is a red herring. In 2009, Françoise Kusseling and Wilfried Decoo looked at how different EU countries defined so-called Profiles and Referentials for CEFR in different languages. They found big discrepancies with regard to vocabulary size depending on the language (or the language institute that defined vocabulary sizes for CEFR levels). The recommended vocabulary sizes varied from 400 to 3300 for level A1, from 800 to 4000 for level B1, and from 1100 to 6800 for level C2.
So it will come as no surprise when I say that I wouldn't want to transfer the above vocabulary sizes for Standard Chinese to other languages.