I'd like to know a strategy to deal with this lexical issue of the Arabic language. What strategy should I follow to memorize the right pattern correctly?
As included in their definition, "broken plurals" in arabic are irregular. As a consequence, no single rule can allow you to master them. What's more, they sometimes differ so much from the singular that the word is difficult to recognize if you only know its singular form.
As frustrating as it may seem, I think the only way to memorize these plurals is to hear them several, respectively many times. The strategy I would recommend is to consistently look up the plural of new words you learn, and ask yourself what the plural of words you already know is. It reminds me of German, where I think it is important to always learn the gender of nouns. Once you get used to this discipline, you knowledge of plurals should improve a lot.
you can use these rules to get the verbal nouns, they tell you how to get it depending on the number of letters in your verb and the vowels on some of those letters.
I wouldn't bother to learn the rules by heart. If I were you, I'll use an example for each one to remember them. And this one is for plurals: الجمع وأنواعه.