There are three Arabic keyboard layouts in Windows 10: Arabic (101), Arabic (102) and Arabic (102) AZERTY. Anyone of them can be used independent of which language you choose (I chose Egyptian - see below for reasons). To access the keyboard options:
- You have to install an Arabic language to be able to select an arabic keyboard layout .
- After a language has been installed, click on it in the Windows languages list and click Options.
- Check out the section Keyboards to choose among the layouts mentioned above (Arabic (101) was the one installed by default).
The differences between the keyboards (source):
The basic choice is between Arabic 101 and Arabic 102 (these numbers refer to the number of keys). The main difference is in the position of the letter dhal, which is on the far left above the tab key in the 101 version and on the far right in the 102 version. For bilingual use, the 102 keyboard can be bought with its Roman letters in the normal English QWERTY arrangement or the French AZERTY arrangement which is favoured in North Africa.
Note that Windows 10 seems to use arabic numerals (1,2,3,4,5) for all keyboards unlike for example Android phone where one of the biggest difference between the different layouts are the numerals: most eastern dialects use the Eastern Arabic numerals (٠ ١ ٢ ٣ ٤ ٥) while most of the western dialects use the Arabic numerals.
As the language I ended up choosing Egyptian. Not because the keyboard would be in any way different but Egyptian Arabic seems to be the most common dialect (~65,000,000 speakers according to Wikipedia). Also from Wikipedia:
The 94 million Egyptians speak a continuum of dialects, among which Cairene is the most prominent. It is also understood across most of the Arabic-speaking countries due to the predominance of Egyptian influence on the region as well as Egyptian media including Egyptian cinema which has had a big influence in the MENA region for more than a century along with the Egyptian music industry, making it the most widely spoken and by far the most widely studied variety.