What is more, Glover’s (1989) research suggests that recall is more effective in learning than recognition, and that
multiple-choice in web-based learning tends to reinforce recognition, not recall. According to constructivist
assumption stressing the active construction of knowledge and situational activities (see Han, 1990), recall is a much
more important intellectual activity than recognition because recall makes retrieving schemata an easier process for
the learner. This coincides with the context where students construct their knowledge through the representation of
specific knowledge internally and the interpretation of personal experiences. In the same context, recall plays a
greater role in transferring knowledge than recognition, because recognition is a process of simply retrieving what
the learner has obtained previously or what the learner has memorized (Han, 1990).
Viewed from the fact that recall and recognition are two different
cognitive processes and that recall is closely related to the transfer
of knowledge, it is unfavorable to adopt a multiple response mode that
requires recognition in web-based learning. Graff (2003) suggests that
introducing design principles that incorporate the learners’ cognitive
style (i.e., holistic and analytic) with content might be instrumental
in developing an effective instructional program. Thus, what is needed
at this time is to test response modes that support active
intellectual recall and the transfer of knowledge matching to the
context. More specifically, it is the explicit response presented at
the time when feedback is given that requires greater concern.
From "Improving Recall and Transfer Skills Through Vocabulary Building in WebBased
Second Language Learning: An Examination by Item and Feedback
Type" by Yun et al, Educational Technology & Society, 11.4 (2008), 158–172.